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Sea food industry in Pakistan future prospective, health benefits and utilization of by products


Sea food industry in Pakistan future prospective, health benefits and utilization of by products
Fish Industry or sea food industry:
Fish industry helps to improve the basic necessities of food and employment and also improves the economy of country. Fish is rich in nutrients and if taken will provide us with a lot of beneficial nutrients like Calcium, Vitamins especially Vit-A and zinc, Iron. Fish also helps to cure various diseases.


Fish Production:
In 2012 fish production was 185 million tons from which 91 million ton was captured usually 11.6 from inland and 79.7 million tons from marine captures.
58.27 million People’s livelihood depend upon capturing fisheries while 18.86 million people are involved in fish farming worldwide.
Current status of fish or sea food industry in Pakistan:
Fishing industry plays a significant role in economy of country. FDC (fisheries Development Commissioner) manages the fish industry. FDC is responsible for planning, privacy and coordination with fisheries departments all across the country.
Aquaculture or fish farming is new in Pakistan .Aquaculture production is rapidly increasing from the year 2000.At the start,  It’s production  was 10-5 thousand tons but recently it is 100,000tonns.
Pakistan fish production mostly comes from capture fishery while some from aquaculture practices, exports and imports.
Ø Capture fishery production:
Capture fishery played an important role in fish production in Pakistan but at initial stages production was too low.
From 1983-2017 average rate of production was 4,88,289MT year-`1
Capture fishery contribution in 2017 was 76.5% which is most recent
Ø Aquaculture production was 5,460MT year-1
Ø Average export fishery production was 9.99%
Ø Import fishery production was 2,206MT year-1
Pakistan has extensive inland water areas for fish production which are mainly dominated by Indus River. They cover an area of almost 8 million hectares For example
·        Dams
·        Rivers
·        Lakes
·        Ponds
·        Water locks
Marine subsector
Continental shelf area of 50270km2 and coastline length of 1,120km are for it in Pakistan. Now a day’s total marine zone is 30% of land areas in Pakistan. Karachi fish Harbour is biggest in Pakistan. Currently more than 4,000 fishing craft are based in it.
Fish Exports
Pakistan is getting much benefit by supplying or exporting Tuna fish to its neighbour country Iran for canning purposes.
Inland fisheries
It includes rivers, irrigation canals and reservoirs with almost 211,609 employments. Main fisheries include
·        Shrimp trawl fishery
·        Small-scale dermal fishery
·        Small pelagic fishery
Lakes
In Sindh there are more than 100 natural lakes
·        Haleji lake
·        Thata kinjhar lake
·        Manchar lake
·        Dadu district
These are currently supporting 2000 fishing families
 Punjab covers 7000 hac some lakes are
·        Namal lake
·        Uchhali lake
·        Kallar lake
·        Khabikki lake
Future prospective of sea food industry in Pakistan
Fishery management is responsible for resources, processing and marketing. Natural resources are fully consumed the main purpose of managements is to expand the social and economical benefits derived from fish resources. Fish stocks are inadequate and resources are definite.
First step to maintain fish management is
·        Raise exports
·        Improvements in fish production and processing
·        Fish managements must be improved
·        Fishing must be done in appropriate season. Fishing season has greater influence on fish variety
·        To give protection and preservation of fish species
·        For proper management knowledge of fish stocks is also necessary
Fish industry plays important role in economy of Pakistan .Out of total almost 10% fish are exported annually.
·        Development of laws and regulations to improve the industrial gains  according to laws
·        Export trade for fisheries mainly depends upon supply chain management. Supply chain management must be improved to gain more benefits in future
·        FDC is working under Ministry of food, Agriculture and Livestock responsible for policy design , planning and coordination with provisional  fisheries departments
                            Nutritional benefits of sea food:
Seafood is beneficial for human health. The fats present in sea food are not solids they are in form of oils. Eating seafood can decrease the risk of heart attack , obesity ,hypertension and stroke. Fish also helps to cure various diseases.

·        Seafood is low in saturated fatty acids while high in unsaturated fatty acids especially omega-3 fatty acids
·        Omega 3 fatty acids help in lowering cholesterol it improves heart rate lowers blood pressure  and improves cardiovascular functions
·        Most fish are rich in omega 3 fatty acids mainly EPA (Eicosapentanoic acid) and DHA (Docosahexanoic acid)
·        Although shellfish contains most fats than fats in meat and poultry  but those fats are unsaturated fats and contains higher amount of omega 3 fatty acid which is beneficial for health and reduces risks of heart attack
·        Seafood also reduces risks of chronic diseases like asthma, cancer ,muscular degeneration etc.
·        Prevent and treat depression
·        Reduce risks of autoimmune diseases
·        Help in preventing asthma in children
·        Protect vision in old age
·        Fish may improve sleep quality
·        For pregnant  women and mothers who are breastfeeding their babies seafood is important because it supply lage amount of DHA which is important for brain development and visual development of infants
Vitamins and minerals in seafood
Fish is rich in nutrients and if taken will provide us with a lot of beneficial nutrients like Calcium, Vitamins especially Vit-A and zinc, Iron.Seafood contain essential vitamins and minerals like
·        Vitamin B6
·        Vitamin E
·        Vitamin B12
·        Thiamin
·        Riboflavin
·        Oily fish contain Vit-A and D

Minerals include
·        Zinc mineral
·        Phosphorous mineral
·        Magnesium mineral
·        Iron  mineral
·        Copper mineral
·        Potassium mineral
·        Selenium mineral
·        Canned salmon contain calcium
·        Marine fish is dietary source of iodine

Dietary recommendations:
·        Smaller amount is recommended for children
·        Mean intake is 3.5 ounces per week
·        Farm raised seafood can have higher level of omega 3 fatty acid than wild raised seafood
·        Intake for omega 3 fatty acid emphasizes the adequate consumption of alpha linolenic acid to satisfy requirements for all ages
·        Human body converts only small amount of ALA to DHA or EPA
                         Uses of fish and fish by products
Fish by products include
·        Fish liver oil( extracted from fish tissue)
·        Fish meal
·        Fish body
·        Fish manure
·        Fish glue
·        Isinglass (gelatinous substance obtained from air bladder of perches)
·        Fish protein concentrates
·        Fish albumin
·        Amino acids
Uses:
Fish industry helps to improve the basic necessities of food and employment and also improves the economy of country.
·        Salmons are used in production of cement
·        Salmon is also used in clarification of wine and beer
·        Flesh of Fish is also used for food purpose ,Mahseer which is also known as Himalayan Mahasher is important game fish and also food fish in Pakistan
·        There are many edible species of fish and many fish produce edible roe
·        Shellfish ,crustaceans and sea cucumber are also edible some are used as fish snacks (fried fish milt)
·        Sea plants such as kombu are also used in some regional cuisine
·        Fish skin has been used for clothing shoes, trousers etc bags, sacks and carrier packs are also made
·        For production of feed and fertilizers
·        Fish sauce is also used which is fermented fish product. It is made by mixing three parts of fish raw material
·        Fish silage can be produced from all kind of low value fish and fish by products it is entirely used for feed. It is mixture of 2-3% formic acid into mineral raw material.

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